The composition of royal jelly
There has existed an eminent interest of the royal jelly composition and a lot of researchers have not left their interest till nowadays. The substance can be, according to the present analysis, divided into 8 groups. These are different in chemical compositions and biological influence:
1. mineral matters, 2. fats, 3. carbohydrates, 4. purins and pyrimidins, 5. amino acids and peptides, 6. proteins, 7. hormones, 8. vitamins.
1. In the royal jelly have been found 15 elements ( V i t t e k ), as potassium, sodium, aluminium, manganese, zinc, bismuth, arsenic, iron, cobalt, chlorine, phosphor and others. The importance of vitamins for a human organism is unquestionable.
2. Chemical analysis found out that there are approximately 6% of fat substances. These substances occupy very important and significant place in the royal jelly. Acid which contents majority is called 10-hydroxide-delta 2-decenic. This acid has germicidal, antibiotic and antifungal effects. It also helps to preserve the royal jelly itself.
3. From the carbohydrate-based matters were in the royal jelly found following ones: glucose, fructose, sucrose, ribose, unknown structured ketoncarbohydrate, glucoron acid, Pyruvic acid and others.
4. V i t t e k has found lots of matters based on purine and pirimidine. He has also discovered uric acid, urea, and free nucleotides (adenosine, adenine, guanine, uridine), cytosine and uridine nucleotides.
5. Amino acids are structural elements of proteins. These are present in all organisms and very crucial for nourishment. By now have been identified lysine, asparagine, arginine, serine, glicine, metionine, tyrosine, leucine, tryptophan, treonine, cystine, phenylalamin, valine and others.
6. The content of proteins is reported between 24 and 45 %. The larger part is made by enzymes as invertase, catalase, amylase, protease, phosphatase, salycilase, askorbinoxidase and unspecific cholinesterase.
7. H e n s c h l e r found out in the royal jelly acetylcholine, which is by endocrinologists counted into the tissue hormones also called mediators. Acetylcholine is compounded ester of vinegar acid and choline.
C o l h o u n and S m i t h ascertained that bee brain tissue synthesizes up to 50 mg acetylcholine an hour. The content of acetylcholine in the royal jelly exceeds its content in honey more than 1000 times.
Another substance contained in the royal jelly is biopterine. This matter was identified and inspected by B u s t e n a n d t and R e m b o l d. Biopterine is the matter which causes the mother’s longevity. We are unable to find this matter in workers’ food. The essential factor for pterines building is the folic acid.
8. Last but not at least, there are vitamins contained in the royal jelly. Vitamins are indispensable for animate beings. Nor a bee neither a human can make these substances. They must be received in food. The royal jelly is, as a source of them, a requisite foodstuff for nourishing the bee larvae. It contains almost all the vitamins in a relatively large amount according to the other animal products. It has been proved that the royal jelly contains circa 365 – 531 µm of vitamins per a gram of dry matter. Many researchers have found out presence of vitamin A, the whole group of vitamins B and vitamins C, D and E.
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